Black Consciousness in the Twentieth Century Essay Ralph Ellison began his 1952 novel with the sentence; â€œI am an invisible man.â€ (Ellison 3) These five words summed up the way in which the majority of Black Americans felt about their place in society at the time. The Civil Rights Movement was still years away, and the caste of American society had placed the Black American near the bottom. The book is in the first person narrative, narrated by a man who considers himself by societyâ€™s view point to be invisible because of his race. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â The self-awareness of the Black American was limited to only what the white establishment would allow â€“ and in the majority of the country, that was very little. However, the essence for the change that would occur had already been born. The awakening, in the late 1950s, of the Black American would take place in religion, politics, self-awareness and literature. This would become exemplified by the manner in which women in the black communities were treated. The rise of domestic violence was an issue, even in 1950s America â€“ and in both the homes of blacks and whites. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â There would be, though, differences in which this awakening would manifest itself. For some, like those who would march with Martin Luther King, non-violence and pacifism would be the dominate tool to their awakening. For others, the awakening would come in the form of a religious rebirth, and strong assertion of their place in society. There was a responsibility being neglected in the role of the black male to uphold his place of caregiver to his wife and family â€“ as well as to the community as a whole. This was an important issue to realize, as the teachings of Islam would tell. â€œThe white man wants black men to stay immoral, unclean, an ignorantâ€. (223). During the course of the novel the protagonists lists ways in which he has become invisible and the reaction he stirs within society because of his â€˜blacknessâ€™, and as Ellis illustrates in the prologue of the book, â€œI live rent-free in a building rented strictly to whites, in a section of the basement that was shut off and forgotten during the nineteenth century.â€ (Ellis prologue).Â The narrator goes on to state that light is a necessity for him since light to him is equivalent to truth (much as it was in Platoâ€™s cave â€“ so here the reader gains a sense of philosophy and of intelligence from the narrator). Throughout the course of the events that aid in defining the narrator the major first event occurs on his collegeâ€™s campus.Â The epiphany that the invisible man has during this time is that a black man whom he had once aspired to be like (i.e. to leave a legacy for his college) is not at all worthy of his aspiration but instead is merely a black man who has disguised himself enough to be able to â€˜surviveâ€™ in the white dominated society.Â Thus, the invisible man has his first exposure to mis-identities and the almost innate need that black men feel they have to become someone else in order to be a part of white society. In another act of deception in the book, the narrator (after a boiler room â€˜accidentâ€™) is hospitalized; during a state of consciousness he discovers that he has been experimented upon with shock treatment without his knowledge.Â This is a severe breach of his constitutional rights as well as his humanity.Â Thus, the narrator finds out that he is not considered to be human, or even subhuman but rather a thing, an object, a less than real entity whose presence is a constant element of scorn and fear to the white race (at least through each of the experiences the invisible man has had with white people). Thus, not only is he destroyed through the perception of white people but through his own culture and race as Dr. Bledsoe has given the invisible man letters of recommendation whose intent was merely to waylay the invisible man from coming back to college and to not (as the invisible man had thought was their intention) to get him a job.Â Therefore the invisible man is hoodwinked by a person whom he thought he could trust and this leads him to further epiphanies of himself and his race and eitherâ€™s misconception. The novel is truly about self-awareness through objective perception.Â Although the narrator finds brief solace with the Brotherhood and brother Jack (a black organization seeking to unite the black community in New York), this soon turns into another form of hate through jealousy.Â The narratorâ€™s position is replaced and he travels outside of Harlem only to return and find his friend dead.Â Despite efforts to try and unite the Brotherhood again, the narrator is soon forced to recognized his grandfatherâ€™s maxim, â€œover come em with yeses, undermine em with grins, agree em to death and destruction. . . (Ellis). The novel is about a man whose invisibility is plagues by mis-identity, and whose overall undertones of outside prejudices define his life as well as his identity up to a point.Â The â€˜yes manâ€™ that his grandfather advised him to do was a type of camouflage technique in which a man can exist wholly without being noticed by being, in essence, no one at all â€“ by becoming invisible in order to survive.Â The sacrifice that the invisible man does is to waylay his hopes and dreams in order to be nothing so that he may survive, not be gunned down by either Brother Jack or by the police.Â In essence Ellisâ€™ book contributed greatly to the recognition of the black consciousness and the state of the Civil Rights movement in order for blacks to not be invisible in order to exist. WORKS CITED Ellison, Ralph. The Invisible Man. Random House Inc. New York. Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â 1952. Gates, Henry Louis. The Signifying Monkey: A Theory of African-American Literary Criticism.Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â Â New York: Oxford UP, 1988. Klein, Marcus. After Alienation: American Novels in Mid-Century. New York: World, 1964. McSweeney, Kerry. Invisible Man: Race and Identity. Boston: Twayne, 1988.
Explain the difference between an open economy and a closed economy - Essay Example However, opponents believe that more openness leads to loss of jobs, dumping, interdependence among nations, and economic sanctions among others.2 A closed economy on the other hand, is accused of hindering technology transfer and foreign investments although it is appropriate in ensuring protection of local industries. The paper will discuss the numerous differences between a closed and open economy as well as the advantages and disadvantages a country would have by using either of the economic models. Differences between Closed and Open Economies There are numerous distinctions between a closed and open economy. A closed economy is one in which trade is carried out within the borders of a nation or domestically hence the gross domestic product (GDP) is the same as gross national product (GNP). An open economy on the other hand, is one in which trade is carried out within and outside the borders hence the GDP and GNP are not equal but depend on volume of imports and exports.3 An open economy is achieved by eliminating the barriers to trade such as tariffs and import quotas. However, most open economies have put some trade barriers so as to protect crucial industries from competition in the world market or to protect consumers against harmful products and also to protect the environment from pollution.4 It can be noted therefore that there is no perfectly closed or perfectly open economy as each has an element of closeness and openness. A closed economy does not allow movement of labour across borders unlike open economy where workers are free to work anywhere in the world. Another distinction is that a closed economy does not allow movement of capital across borders hence investments are domestic in nature and foreign exchange rates do not impact on the economy unlike in an open economy where there is movement of capital across borders. Businessmen can therefore invest in foreign stocks and money markets thus the economy is affected by exchange rates.5 According to Jane, sometimes open economies can act as closed economies.6 This is especially so if few members with open economies act as a tightly integrated economic bloc and only trade with each other thus becoming a collectively closed economy. On the other hand, a country cannot produce all the goods and services it requires hence it is forced to import some products. Open economies are characterized with large multinational corporations like starbucks with braches all over the world and this is not the case in closed economies. Advantages and Disadvantages of Closed Economy A closed economy does not have any dealings in the global market therefore is not affected by factors outside the country. For example, the global financial crisis that started in the US spread to all parts of the world due to interrelatedness of product and financial markets. The developed countries are known to impose economic sanctions on developing countries as a condition for giving them funds for development. These sanctions impact negatively on the economy but a closed economy cannot be under such sanctions since it is self reliant.7 Another advantage is the effectiveness of fiscal and monetary policy in the economy. An expansionary fiscal policy is meant to stimulate the economy during recession by raising aggregate demand. This is
THE LITTLE PRINCE In the eyes of a child, there is joy, there is laughter. But as time ages us, as soon as we flowered and became grown-ups the child inside us all fades that we forget that once, we were a child. The story begins about drawings of closed and open boa constrictors. Later, the author relates a story about the Turkish astronomer who discovers the little prince's home, Asteroid B-612. When he presents his findings to the International Congress of Astronomy, dressed in his comical Turkish outfit, he is not believed. Man has not learned to look beneath the exterior, or rather, he has forgotten how. Because adults never look within, they will never know themselves or others. A fox is one cunning animal. And in the story, it is proven to be right. From the fox's lesson that one can see only what is essential by looking with the heart, the author leaves the desert as a changed person. He agrees with the little prince's thought: 'the stars are beautiful, because of a flower that cannot be seen';. Â Â Â Â Â The rose is very fragile and needs constant care. Love is not a matter of choice; it is a matter of consequence; indeed, it is a matter of survival. Men must learn to love one another or expire. Love is what gives life meaning. The little prince's love for his rose is so important to him that his love gives the author's life purpose and direction. The fox teaches the little prince how to love. It is the time that one 'wastes'; on someone or something that makes it important. It is the fox that tells us how love overcomes existentialism: 'One only knows the things that one tames… Men buy things already made in the stores. But as there are no stores where friends can be bought, men no longer have friends.'; The three volcanoes represent our problems. The active volcano is our current problems; the extinct, our past trials, and the dormant, the problems that we don't know if they are through or there are still to come. But as the rain stops pouring down, rainbow starts to form. Joy and pleasure must be earned-- not given or received -- like the joy the water from well gives to the little prince and the pilot. Its sweetness comes from the journey under the stars and the work of the pilot's arms making the pulley sing.
Write something about yourself. No need to be fancy, just an overview.